Guidelines for Treatment of Osteoarthritis
Comparative Effectiveness and Safety of Analgesics for Osteoarthritis. Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 4. Chou R, Helfand M, Peterson K, Dana T, Roberts C. (Prepared by the Oregon Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-02-0024.) Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality. September 2006.
Osteoarthritis: National clinical guideline for care and management in adults. National Collaborating Centre for Chronic Conditions. London: Royal College Physicians, 2008. Available at: http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG059FullGuideline.pdf.
An evidenced-based approach to prescribing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Tannenbaum H, Bombardier C, Davis P, Russell AS. Third Canadian Consensus Conference. J Rheumatol 2006;33:140-57.
OARSI recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis, Part II: OARSI evidence-based, expert consensus guidelines. Zhang W, Moskowitz RW, Nuki G, Abramson S, Altman RD, Arden N, Bierma-Zienstra S, Brandt KD, Croft P, Doherty M, Dougados M, Hochberg M, Hunter DJ, Kwoh K, Lohmander LS, Tugwell P. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2008;16:137-62.
Topical NSAID Reviews for Osteoarthritis
Topical NSAID Therapy for Musculoskeletal Pain. Haroutiunian S, Drennan DA, Lipman AG. Pain Med. 2010 Mar 4.
Topical diclofenac solution. Moen MD. Drugs. 2009;69(18):2621-32.
OARSI guidelines for hip and knee OA: deciphering the topical drug melange. Shainhouse JZ. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 2008;16:1586-87. Letter to the editor.
Topical diclofenac: clinical effectiveness and current uses in osteoarthritis of the knee and soft tissue injuries. Banning M. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2008;9:2921-9.
Topical agents in the treatment of rheumatic pain. Moore RA, Derry S, McQuay HJ. Rheum Dis Clin N Am 2008;34:415-32.
All topical NSAIDs are not created equal - Understanding topical analgesic drug formulations. Galer, BS. Pain 2008;139:237-8, doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2008.08.009, 28 August 2008. Letter to the editor.
Topical diclofenac and its role in pain and inflammation: an evidence-based review. Zacher J, Altman R, Bellamy N, Bruhlmann P, Da Silva J, Huskisson E, Taylor RS. Current Medical Research and Opinions,2008; 24(4):925-950. doi: 10.1185/030079908X273066.
Topical treatments for osteoarthritis of the knee. Haynes S, Gemmell H. Clinical Chiropractic 2007;10:126-38.
The use of topical diclofenac for pain in osteoarthritis of the knee: a review. Banning M. Br J Community Nurs 2006;11:487-92.
Long-term efficacy of topical nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs in knee osteoarthritis: metaanalysis of randomized placebo controlled clinical trials. Biswal S, Medhi B, Pandhi P. J Rheumatol 2006;33:1841-4.
Pennsaid Clinical Trial Data
Efficacy and safety of topical diclofenac containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) compared with those of topical placebo, DMSO vehicle and oral diclofenac for knee osteoarthritis. Simon LS, Grierson LM, Naseer Z, Bookman AAM, Shainhouse JZ. Pain 2009;143:238-45.
An alternative topical treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee with cutaneous diclofenac solution. Ozguney I. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2008;9:1805-16.
Pennsaid therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee: a systematic review and meta analysis of randomized controlled trials. Towheed TE. J Rheumatol 2006;33:567-73.
Efficacy of topical diclofenac in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis - Results from four long-term (4 to 12 weeks) randomized controlled trials. Zhang W, Doherty M, Thomas L, Shainhouse J. Ann Rheum Dis Jun 2005;64 (Suppl III):481 (Abstract SAT0228).
Equivalence study of a topical diclofenac solution (Pennsaid®) compared with oral diclofenac in the symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled trial. Tugwell PS, Wells GA, Shainhouse JZ. J Rheumatol 2004;31:2002-12.
Efficacy and safety of a topical diclofenac solution (PENNSAID®) in the treatment of primary osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled clinical trial. Roth SH, and Shainhouse JZ. Arch Intern Med 2004;164:2017-23.
Treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee with a topical diclofenac solution: a randomized controlled, 6-week trial. Baer PA, Thomas LM, Shainhouse Z. [ISRCTN53366886]. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2005, 6:44, doi:10.1186/1471-2474-6-44.
Effect of a topical diclofenac solution for relieving symptoms of primary osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled trial. Bookman AAM, Williams KSA, Shainhouse JZ. CMAJ 2004;171:333-8.
Transdermal Drug Delivery
Topical Gel Catches Up With Pills for Relief. Tarken, L. New York Times
2010 Sept 6.
In vivo bioavailability and metabolism of topical diclofenac lotion in human volunteers. Hui X, Hewitt PG, Poblete N, Maibach HI, Shainhouse JZ, Wester RC. Pharm Res 1998;15:1589-95.
In vitro cutaneous disposition of a topical diclofenac lotion in human skin: effect of a multi-dose regimen. Hewitt PG, Poblete N, Wester RC, Maibach HI, Shainhouse JZ. Pharm Res1998;15:988-92.
Enhanced human nail drug delivery: Nail inner drug content assayed by unique method. Hui X, Shainhouse JZ, Tanoyo H, Anigbogu A, Markus GE, Maibach HI, Wester RC. J Pharmaceut Sci 2002;91:189-95.